Pretzer, S. D. (2008). "Medical management of canine and feline dystocia." Theriogenology 70(3): 332-336.
Dystocia is derived from the Greek "dys" and "tokos", meaning a difficult, painful or abnormal parturition. It is not always easy to differentiate normal labor and delivery from dystocia. There are several potential causes for dystocia in the queen, only some of which are amenable to medical management. Educated and careful decision making is aided by a thorough history and physical examination, as well as certain diagnostic tests. This review article describes the decision making process for instituting medical management for dystocia in the queen, as well as the available therapeutic options.
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Traas, A. M. (2008). "Surgical management of canine and feline dystocia." Theriogenology 70(3): 337-342.
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