Dedicated to the
Health and Welfare of All Cats
Call 201-275-0624
GIVE NOW Call 201-275-0624
A A A
Font Size
education

Cat Health News Blog

A resource for dedicated cat supporters

Since its start in 2007, Cat Health News has featured the latest information on feline health. The bi-weekly blog is a mix of the most current published research from Winn-funded research and other sources. There are over 875 blog post items and more than 1,000 subscribers through the RSS feed.


icon-blogWinn-funded research is specifically noted by the small green cat.

  • Can canine blood be given to cats needing a transfusion?

    Jan 21, 2020

    Le Gal A, Thomas EK, Humm KR. Xenotransfusion of canine blood to cats: a review of 49 cases and their outcome. J Small Anim Pract [Internet]. 2019 Dec 22 [cited 2019 Dec 30];jsap.13096. 

    cat on tilesXenotransfusion refers to the administration of blood products between species. In a clinical veterinary context, this often means administering canine red blood cells to feline patients. This situation may arise due to the differential availability of canine and feline blood products; a lack of access to type B feline blood; or insufficient time to blood type a patient prior to the need for blood product administration. It has been previously demonstrated in case reports and retrospective series that the one-time administration of dog blood to a cat is tolerated, however it has been suggested that the half life of these transfused cells is low, and that major and minor cross matches almost invariably occur in vitro. There is, however, a lack of well-designed  prospective literature on the subject of xenotransfusion.

    This study was designed as a prospective observational study of cats presenting to two veterinary teaching hospitals over a ~2y period. Cats who required an urgent transfusion (ie the clinician felt there was a high risk of death within 6h without transfusion) where the appropriate feline blood product was not available, the transfusion medicine service deemed the situation appropriate, and informed consent was present where eligible to receive canine blood if no previous xenotransfusion had occurred.

    A standard transfusion protocol was applied that involved screening the donor for blood type (A/B and DEA 1), measuring standard lab values, and performing a cross match (though due to urgency this did not always occur prior to transfusion). Cats were generally transfused with 1mL/kg pRBC with a transfusion goal of 25% at clinician’s discretion. Standard transfusion monitoring occurred. 

    Forty-nine cats received a xenotransfusion and were included in the study. 34.7% of transfusions were due to surgical blood loss, 28.6% IMHA, and 28.6% neoplasia. There was one case each of IBD, AKI, coagulopathy, and oral ulcers (presumable Menrath’s ulcers but not specified as such). 61% of cats were type A, 28% type B, 6% type AB, and two were not typed. Crossmatches were performed in 29 cats with major incompatibilities in 69% and minor in 31%, with only 24% compatible for both. 

    Six cats (12.2) experienced febrile non hemolytic reactions during transfusion, which prompted stopping and restarting in 2 cases. There was no difference in reaction rate based on cross match compatibility.  Five cats died during transfusion; one was undergoing CPR at the time of transfusion; two were euthanized due to diagnostics performed during transfusion; and two did not stabilize. Three were euthanized during the first 12 hours due to poor prognosis associated with primary disease. No animal died as a result of transfusion reactions. No acute reactions other than febrile-non-hemolytic occurred. 

    Of the surviving patients, a delayed hemolytic reaction occurred in 64% with a median onset of two days. No cat died as a result of this reaction. 

    There are some limitations present to this study. Among these are the relatively small sample size (though larger than most previous publications on the subject) and the lack of a control group (ie matched patients receiving feline blood). The design of the trial meant that enrolled animals may have represented a different population than the general transfusion population, as they were screened as requiring a xenotransfusion. The authors may also have under reported the onset of delayed transfusion reactions due to discharge or euthanasia of patients. 

    Overall, this paper suggests that there may be a place for xenotransfusion in veterinary medicine. Feline blood is obviously the preferred option when type-matched product is available. However, in situations where this is not practical or attainable a single xenotransfusion will have a low risk of serious transfusion reactions and, while the increase in hematocrit is not durable, it will allow a few days to stabilize the patient and/or attain appropriate blood products. (MRK)

    See also:

    Euler CC., Raj K, Mizukami K., et al. (2016) Xenotransfusion of anemic cats with blood compatibility issues: pre- and posttransfusion laboratory diagnostic and crossmatching studies. Veterinary Clinical Pathology 45, 244-253

    Bovens C, Gruffydd-Jones T. Xenotransfusion with canine blood in the feline species: review of the literature. J Feline Med Surg. 2013; 15: 62-67

     

     


    Anemia Blood transfusion Xenotransfusion Canine blood Cross match

    More on cat health:

    Winn Feline Foundation Library
    Find us on Facebook
    Follow us on Twitter
    Pin with us on Pinterest
    Join us on Google+

 

Archives

2020
2019
2018
2017
2016
2015
2014
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007